What is Flora and Fauna

What do you know about flora and fauna? These are two essential plants for the earth’s ecosystem.

Everything You Need To Know About Flora And Fauna

Our world is full of living and non-living things. The two basic scientific terms used for these things are the Abiotic and Biotic. If you want to go green, you have to understand our eco-system and the two core components: flora and fauna.

The term Abiotic relates to all physical objects such as mountains and rivers.

Biotic, on the other hand, is about life on earth known as “flora and fauna”.

What Are Flora And Fauna?

Flora and fauna each have their differences between each other. They are obviously very important components of our environment and ecosystem.

Let’s evaluate the definition of each flora and fauna to set the stage for further analysis.

Flora Definition

The word “flora” means plant life. This word comes from the “flora” the goddess of flowers and plants. It was a symbol of flowers, nature, and fertility in Roman mythology.

Flora is a Latin word, which relates to the collective plant life. It refers to all the plant species that exist in this world. Flora includes plants that once grew on the earth and those, which we are cultivating at present.

Fauna Definition

The fauna is about animal life. Fauna was the goddess of the Roman religion. Romans believed that this goddess nurtures all the living creatures in the world.

Avifauna is a term given to the birds and Piscifauna includes all types of fish. Moreover, microorganisms also have a distinctive name to represent them, which is Microfauna.

So, now we know that flora fauna relates to plants and animals. These two and similar other forms of life create a Biota.

Flora And Fauna Classification

The classification of flora and fauna depends on regions, climate, period, and environments. We can distinguish the plant life present on our earth in different ways. The simplest method used is to divide them depending on the basis of their respective regions.

Plants growing in the desert are quite different from those that grow in the mountains. The unique form of flora includes those plants, which have adapted them to live under deep waters.

Scientists also take interest in studying ‘Fossil Flora’. It is a type of study, which involves ancient plant life, once existed on the earth.

As stated above, there is an indigenous and native flora of every area. For instance, the gum trees (eucalyptus) are abundant in Australia.

Similarly, English oak first grew in the United Kingdom. Plants grown by the humans for a particular purpose are the agricultural plants.

The classification of the animal kingdom includes different divisions and subdivisions. The phylum is the first division, which breaks down into various groups known as classes. Classes further divided into orders, families, and genera.

When you break down the genus, you get the species. These are individual groups of animals. They have similar characteristics and are capable of breeding together.

Marine Flora and Fauna

Now, let’s talk about the naturally growing flora fauna in oceans, rivers, and water bodies. Their collective environmental zone forms the marine Biome. Biome has three different layers including:

  • Euphotic
  • Disphotic
  • Aphotic

The euphotic layer is a zone where sunlight can penetrate. So, you can find most of the marine life in this area. The disphotic zone is so deep that sunlight fails to reach this part.

Despite being dark, limited marine life still thrives here. The aphotic is the third zone. It also has a limited marine life, which has adapted itself to live without sunlight.

Halimeda, Leafy Flat-Blade, and Dead Man’s Fingers are some examples of marine flora. The marine fauna found in Biome may either be carnivorous or herbivores.

Tiger Shark and White Shark are some of the examples of carnivorous marine fauna. Whereas, Hermit Crabs, Green Sea Turtles, and Parrotfish relate to the herbivorous fauna.

The Significance Of Flora And Fauna

The flora or plants are so important for us, that we can even think about living without them. Plants support life both on the land and in the oceans. Plants produce oxygen and absorb carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. Hence, the importance of flora and fauna is undeniable.

Oxygen is an inevitable necessity of life on earth. Besides, trees and herbs provide essential resources for humans as well as animals. For example, the Amazon rainforest supplies a massive amount of oxygen and resources.

Every single plant and animal offers something to this world. This brings a balance of life known as flora and fauna ecosystem.

It helps to sustain the life cycle of flora and fauna. Humans enjoy most of the resources available on earth. Hence, we rely on flora fauna for our existence.

The flora and fauna create a fine net of life; hence, are imperative. The plants produce oxygen, which the fauna inhales.

In return, fauna exhales the carbon dioxide, which flora use to synthesize food.

Hence, both flora and fauna are inevitable for each other.


One species rely on other species for its existence. The relationship between bamboo plant and pandas is a perfect example of such dependence. In our ecosystem, flora fauna are all interdependent.

But the fauna takes the major part when it comes to the food chain.

It all starts with the production of food and ends at the highest consumer, “Humans”.

Plants act as the primary producers of food. Small insects feed on the different parts of plants. Fish mostly feed on the moss, algae and other small marine plants.

The small fish serve as a regular food source for big fish. Moreover, birds like seagull and kingfisher eat these small fish.

In the end, humans eat the big fish as the final consumer of the interdependent ecosystem.

Endangered Species Of Flora And Fauna

The ecosystem is a harmonized, consistent, and holistic organization. It functions in accordance with its own laws. It thrives, sustains, and maintains its own balance.

Human interventions have posed a threat to the independent functioning of the ecosystem. Hence, most endangered species of animals and plants are on the verge of their extinction.

Birds and animals also play their role to keep the rainforest alive. They help to spread plant seeds via their feces, allowing new plants to germinate. The continuous destruction of forests has disturbed the habitat of plant and bird species.

Once home to more than millions of marine species, the Great Barrier Reef is losing its life.

The dumping of nitrate-laden water has threatened the majority of species. Consider using less bottled water and find ways to reuse water.

The overfishing of the sharks and Giant Triton has disrupted the food chain. These incidences pose a serious threat to the reef.

Endangered Fauna Species

There are more than hundreds of endangered species of animals, facing depletion threat. The major cause of this plight is the unbridled human interference in their habitat. If we continue losing fauna at this pace, we may soon destroy our ecosystems.

Things like proper removal of junk and other prospects can do your part in protecting fauna.

The endangered animal species include:

  • Siberian Tiger
  • Spanish lynx
  • North American buffalo
  • Royal Bengal Tiger
  • Kola Bear

Endangered Flora Species

Here are some of the endangered flora species:

  • Rafflesia Flower
  • Georgia Aster
  • Western Prairie Fringed Orchid
  • Texas Wild Rice
  • Wiggin’s Acalypha

Contributing Factors

There are many factors, which result in the extinction of the world’s fauna flora. One of the major elements is the human struggle for power and wealth. This has constituted a scenario where the ecological balance of flora and fauna is in danger.

The ruthless destruction of rainforests has done most of the damage. It destroyed the majority of plants and animal species once existed in the world. The killing of sharks for meat has resulted in an overpopulation of stingrays.

Moreover, large-scale whaling in Japan has endangered various species of whales. Shipping accidents have also aggravated the situation. The introduction of hazardous chemicals is destroying marine life on a large scale.

In some of the extreme cases, this has resulted in the extinction of entire species. Destruction of food sources and habitat was the basic factor behind this cruel act.

Other factors include an increased level of water pollutants and the use of insecticides.

See Related: What is Sustainability?

Interesting Facts about Flora and Fauna

Flora fauna collectively adds beauty to our world. Plants create amazing landscapes and look refreshing. Animals are also amazing and some of them are adorable too. The relationship between humans and animals started back there in the Stone Age.

Dogs, horses, sheep, and cattle were part of the earliest civilizations. Humans utilized them in every possible manner. Dogs are still serving as a faithful pet. Besides, plants continue to provide food, shelter, and clothing to us.

But there are some unusual and unbelievable facts about flora and fauna. We have included these facts to fascinate you more about these wonders of nature.

See Related: Top Quotes about Sustainability

Interesting Facts About Fauna

Here are some of the most amazing animal facts.

  • According to some estimates, the lifespan of whale sharks may reach up to 150 years.
  • Female lions do most of the hunting. Male lions only defend the territory of their pride. Even though, a male lion eats first.
  • 60% of an orangutan’s diet comprises of fruits. The fruit diet includes mangoes, lychees, and mangoes.
  • The skin of a polar bear is black. The white color comes from the hair that is hollow.
  • The most efficient swimmer of the ocean is Jellyfish. It consumes 48% less oxygen as compared to any other marine animal.
  • Malayan tapirs may resemble big pigs. But zebras, horses, rhinos and donkeys are their close relatives.
  • The size of a newborn panda cub is 900 times less than the mother panda. Actually, it isn’t larger than a butter stick.
  • Believe it or not, shrimp’s heart is present in its head.
  • A snail is capable of sleeping for up to three years.
  • The koalas have fingerprints that are indistinguishable from that of humans
  • The only animal, which can’t jump is “Elephant”
  • The massive horns of rhino are nothing but a massive collection of its hair.
  • A sloth takes not less than two weeks to digest the food.
  • A cow can give 200,000 glasses of milk during its lifetime.
  • While leaving the cave, bats always turn left.
  • There are no vocal cords in the throat of a Giraffe.
  • The eye of an ostrich is relatively bigger than its brain.

Interesting Facts About Flora

Here are some of the most amazing plant facts:

  • A tree (average size) can give enough wood for the production of 170,100 pencils.
  • A willow tree was the first source of medicine. It was an effective painkiller, aspirin, and fever reducer.
  • The ocean is home to 85% of the overall plant life.
  • You can actually feel happy about eating a banana. It has a natural chemical, which serves as a mood swinger.
  • Almost half of the world’s oxygen supply comes from the great Amazon rainforest.
  • The wood of the Hickory tree is a basic material for Baseball bats.
  • Dendrochronology is a study of calculating the age of a tree by its rings.
  • Caffeine serves as an effective pesticide for a coffee plant.
  • There is 25% of the air in an apple. This is the reason it floats on water.
  • Pears, Peaches, Apricots, Strawberries, Apples, and Quinces are members of the rose family.
  • Potatoes, apple, and onions offer the same taste. But to test this fact, eat them without smelling.
  • The Australian eucalyptus was the tallest tree ever. It was 435 feet tall when measured in 1872.
  • The first cultivation of Potatoes dates back to 7,000 years ago in Peru.
  • The average evaporation from a large beech or oak tree may go up to 25 gallons in a day.
  • Sunflower isn’t a single flower at all. It contains hundreds of tiny flowers known as florets. When ripe, they turn into the seeds.
  • Cooking the potatoes with their skin is healthier. In fact, most of the vitamins are present in its skin.
  • There are more than 2000 different kinds of plants used by us to cook food.
  • The fastest-growing plant in the world is Bamboo. It can grow up to 35 inches in a day.
  • Banana is an Arabic, which means “Fingers”.
  • The only fruit that bears seeds on the surface of its fruit is Strawberry. An average-sized Strawberry holds up to 200 seeds.
  • One of the oldest tree species at present is Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba). This tree first grew almost 250 million years ago.
  • Water constitutes almost 91% of all cabbage contents. Water is renewable though. Here’s why water is renewable.
  • The California redwood is the largest and tallest living tree on the face of the earth.

These were the few amazing facts about the flora fauna. Hope you enjoyed reading them.

Conclusion on Flora and Fauna

Every living creature plays its distinctive role to support life on earth. So, flora and fauna serve as an integral part of our ecosystem.
Maintaining a natural balance is essential for the sustenance of the ecosystem. Hence, we need to reconsider our attitude towards nature for the survival of life on earth.
What do you think of the information regarding flora fauna? Please let me know in the comments below.

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